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New India Literacy Programme


  • The Minister of State for Education informed the Lok Sabha that the Union Government has announced a Centrally Sponsored Scheme “New India Literacy Programme” that aims to cover a target of 5 crore learners under the Foundational Literacy and Numeracy component.


  • The Union Government has approved the “New India Literacy Programme (NILP)” intending to support the States and Union Territories in promoting literacy among non-literates in the age group of 15 and above, across the country covering 5 crore non-literates during the implementation period from 2022-23 to 2026-27.
  • The scheme has been approved with a financial outlay of Rs.1037.90 crore including a Central share of Rs.700.00 crore and a State share of Rs.337.90 crore.
  • The Union and State shares are in the ratio of 60:40 for all States other than the North Eastern Region (NER) and the Himalayan States where the sharing pattern between the Union and the State is in the ratio of 90:10.
  • For Union Territories (UTs) with the legislature, the ratio is 60:40, except in the UT of Jammu and Kashmir where the ratio is 90:10, and for all other UTs without legislature, the Central share is 100%.


  • Foundational Literacy and Numeracy
  • Critical Life Skills
  • Vocational Skills Development
  • Basic Education
  • Continuing Education

Challenge faced by government

  • The major challenge faced by the Government is the opening and mapping of all Bank Accounts of the Implementing Agencies (IAs) in all States with Public Financial Management systems (PFMS).
  • This is a pre-requisite for the release of funds as per revised procedure guidelines of the Ministry of Finance.

Steps taken by the Government for effective implementation of the programme

  • Identify the beneficiaries and Volunteer Teachers: Surveys of beneficiaries and Volunteer Teachers (VTs) are being conducted by States/UTs using schools as the base.
  • Volunteer teachers are trained to carry out the learning modules in online mode.
  • Various workshops are being conducted by States/UTs.
  • The teaching and learning material is available on the DIKSHA portal developed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).
  • Environment-building activities by the involvement and use of social media platforms including Print/Electronic/Folk Media to reach across the country.

Objectives of the Scheme

  • To Provide Foundational literacy and numeracy
  • Promote Critical life skills: Financial literacy, Digital literacy, Commercial skills, Health care and awareness, Child care and education, and Family welfare.
  • The scheme will cover non-literates of the age of 15 years and above in all states/UTs in the country.
  • To cover 5 crore learners (1 crore per year) by using the “Online Teaching, Learning and Assessment System (OTLAS)” in collaboration with National Informatics Center.

Features of the Scheme

  • The term “Adult Education” is to be replaced with “Education For All”.
  • The scheme will be implemented through volunteerism through online mode.
  • Training, and workshops for volunteers, may be organized through face-to-face mode.
  • Involvement of school students, pre-service students of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), school teachers, Anganwadi and ASHA workers, NYKS, NSS, and NCC volunteers.
  • All materials and resources shall be provided digitally.
  • Different strategies are to be adopted for different age groups. Flexibility for States/UTs will be provided to undertake innovative
  • Performance Grading Index (PGI) for State/UT and district level will show the performance of States and UTs on yearly basis by weighing both the physical and financial progress through the UDISE portal.
  • Assessment tests to be conducted in schools by State/UTs and evaluation of learners by NIOS/SIOS; assessment on demand through OTLAS and generation of e-certificates

Priority and Saturation in Literacy:

  • The age group of 15-35 years will be saturated first.
  • Priority will be given to Girls and women, SC/ST/OBC/Minorities, Persons with Special Needs (Divyangjans), Marginalized/ Nomadic/ construction workers/labourers/etc.
  • Focus shall be on all Aspirational districts of NITI Aayog, districts with literacy rates less than the National/State average, and districts with female literacy rates less than 60% as per the 2011 Census.

Challenges in Indian Education System

  • India has achieved universal enrollment at the elementary level. This is a great achievement, but getting Students to School is only the beginning of human Capital formation.
  • Poor quality of facilities, Shortage of qualified faculty.
  • Date Curriculum, Limited university-industry Partnership.
  • Indian origin Scientists have won the Nobel Prize, but post-independence work done in India has not led to a Science novel. If Indians Studying and working abroad can have a great impact, then obviously the problem has to do with our Systems of education and research.
  • Broken Governance System. There are few rewards for being a good teacher and few Punishments for being a Careless one. Need more effective and accountable governance Systems.
  • The greed of Private Colleges to earn the maximum from every Student puts traumatic Pressure on Students which results in mental breakdown.
  • More girls than boys drop out of School. While boys drop out to work, girls usually Stay at home and help with domestic Work. Social Conception of gender roles is an important factor.
  • Learning loss due to the pandemic and the digital divide.

Steps taken by the Government

  • The 86th Constitution Amendment provides the Fundamental right to free and Compulsory education under Article 21A includes a Common education System where the “rich and Poor are educated under one roof".
  • Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan provides funding to eligible State higher educational institutions.
  • Declaration of Educational Institutions as institutions of Eminence, to provide world-class education to Indian Students within the Country.
  • Creation of a Higher Education Financing Agency, for high-quality infrastructure in Premier educational institutions.
  • National Institution Ranking Framework for ranking our higher education institutions.
  • GIAN Initiative invites distinguished academicians, entrepreneurs, scientists, and experts from premier institutions from across the world to teach in higher educational institutions in India.
  • SWAYAM Portal for Online Courses.
  • SWAYAM Prabha Provide HD educational Channels through DTH on a 24X7 basis.
  • Sodhganga to develop a national repository of universities in India, digital Study material for higher education.
  • Samagra Shiksha Scheme to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of School education.