Context: Chandrayaan III spacecraft was integrated with the GSLV Mark III launch vehicle recently. The launch is planned between 12-19th July 2023.
About Chandrayaan III:-
Chandrayaan-3 is the successor to the Chandrayaan-2 mission. Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM3).
- Launched from: Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
- It consists of an indigenous Lander module (LM), a Propulsion module (PM) and a Rover.
- Lander: a spacecraft that descends towards and comes to rest on, the surface of an astronomical body.
- Propulsion module: a box-like structure, mounted with a large solar panel on one side and a large cylinder on top.
- Rover: a small vehicle that can move over rough ground, often used on the surface of other planets, sometimes controlled from the earth.
- The Lander and the Rover have scientific payloads to carry out experiments on the lunar surface.
- There will not be any orbiters like Chandrayaan 2 in it CHANDRAYAAN-2)
Objectives of Chandrayaan-3 mission:-
- To demonstrate a Safe and Soft Landing on Lunar Surface
- To demonstrate Rover roving on the moon and
- To conduct in-situ scientific experiments.
- Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE): to measure the thermal conductivity and temperature
- Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) for measuring the seismicity around the landing site
- Langmuir Probe (LP): to estimate the plasma density and its variations.
- A passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA is accommodated for lunar laser ranging studies.
- Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) for deriving the elemental composition near the landing site.
Propulsion Module Payload:-
- Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE): Future discoveries of smaller planets in reflected light would allow us to probe into a variety of Exo-planets which would qualify for habitability or for the presence of life.
- GSLV-Mk III
- It is also known as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 (LVM3).
- It is a three-stage vehicle with two solid motor strap-ons, a liquid propellant core stage and a cryogenic stage.
- It is the heaviest and the shortest among India’s operational launch vehicles.
- Weighs: 641 tonnes, which is equal to the weight of five fully loaded passenger planes.
- Capacity: GSLV can take 10,000-kg satellites to lower earth orbits.