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African Great Lakes - IAS Academy in Coimbatore


  1. Floods in Rwanda
  1. At least 130 people have died after floods and landslides hit Rwanda’s northern and western provinces.
  2. The Western Province bordering Lake Kivu and the district Rubavu are some of the badly affected regions.
  3. Rwanda’s weather authority is linking the unusual rains seen in recent years to climate change.
  4. Many factors contribute to flooding, but a warming atmosphere caused by climate change makes extreme rainfall more likely.

African Great Lakes:

  1. The Great Lakes of Africa refer to a series of large, interconnected lakes in East and Central Africa, including Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, Lake Albert, Lake Edward, and Lake Kivu.
  2. These lakes are some of the deepest and largest freshwater lakes in the world, with a combined surface area of over 143,000 square kilometres and a total volume of about 18,000 cubic kilometres. They hold approximately 27% of the world’s freshwater.
  3. The lakes are an important source of water, food, and livelihoods for millions of people in the region, supporting fishing, agriculture, and other economic activities.
  4. The lakes also play a crucial role in the region’s ecology, supporting a rich array of aquatic plant and animal species, including several endangered species such as the Nile crocodile and the hippopotamus.
  5. Lake Victoria is the largest of the Great Lakes of Africa, with a surface area of over 68,800 square kilometres. It is set between the Rift Valleys and is bounded by uplifted mountains and highlands associated with rifting.
  6. Compared to the other lakes, it is geologically younger (less than half a million years) and much shallower with markedly lower water clarity.
  7. It is shared by three countries: Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya.
  8. Lake Tanganyika is the second-deepest lake in the world and the longest freshwater lake in the world. It is shared by four countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, and Burundi.
  9. Lake Malawi is the third-largest of the Great Lakes of Africa. It is shared by Malawi, Tanzania, and Mozambique.
  10. Lake Albert is located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is named after Prince Albert of Belgium. It is relatively shallow and has a maximum depth of about 50 metres.
  11. Lake Edward is located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is named after Prince Edward of the United Kingdom.
  12. Lake Kivu is located on the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda, and is one of only three known lakes in the world that contains a large amount of dissolved gas, primarily methane and carbon dioxide.