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Fibre Optic Network; Basic Human rights


  1. Kerala government launches Kerala Fibre Optic Network project.

Key Details:

  1. Kerala launched its own internet service through the Kerala Fibre Optic Network (KFON) project, making it the first state in India to do so.
  2. With the goal of bridging the digital divide, the KFON project aims to provide internet access to every citizen. Initially, it plans to offer internet connectivity to 100 households in each assembly constituency of the state.
  3. KFON has successfully established a robust IT infrastructure that can facilitate up to 40 lakh internet connections throughout Kerala, setting the stage for widespread internet accessibility and connectivity.
  4. This initiative has successfully reached remote locations, including tribal hamlets in Wayanad and other previously underserved areas.
  5. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) in July 2022 granted KFON an infrastructure provider (IP) license and also approved the organization as an internet service provider (ISP).

Internet as a basic human right:

  1. In 2019, the Kerala government became the first state in India to declare internet access as a fundamental right. This significant step followed a United Nations resolution that recognized internet access as a basic human right in 2016.
  2. The declaration was accompanied by a comprehensive plan to transform it into a tangible reality.
  3. KFON was established as a means to provide free internet connections to 20 lakh below-poverty-line (BPL) families in the state.
  4. Recognizing the transformative potential of the internet, the Kerala government took proactive measures to address the digital divide and promote inclusivity.
  5. Recently Kerala declared itself as India’s first fully e-governed State.
  6. The e-office system has already been implemented in the Secretariat, district collectorates, commissionerates and directorates.
  7. As many as 900 government services, comprising all the services usually required by the public, are now available through a single-window portal.
  8. The government has also begun a digital literacy campaign at the grassroots level through various local bodies to ensure that everyone is equipped to access basic services through the Internet.
  9. By ensuring widespread access to the internet, Kerala aims to foster social and economic development while creating a more digitally empowered society.

Fibre Optic Network:

  1. Fibre optic network refers to a high-speed telecommunications network infrastructure that uses optical fibres to transmit data as pulses of light.
  2. It is a technology that enables the transfer of information over long distances at incredibly fast speeds and with minimal signal loss.
  3. In a fibre optic network, data is transmitted in the form of light pulses generated by lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
  4. The optical fibres, which are thin strands of glass or plastic, act as waveguides to carry the light signals over long distances with very little attenuation or loss of signal strength.
  5. The core principle behind fibre optic communication is total internal reflection.
  6. When light enters the fibre at a shallow angle, it reflects off the inner walls of the fibre due to the difference in refractive index between the core and the cladding. This allows the light to travel through the fibre by bouncing off the walls in a process called internal reflection.
  7. Fibre optic networks are widely used in various applications, including telecommunications, internet service providers (ISPs), cable television, data centres, and enterprise networks.